Accumulating evidence illustrates the significance of chaperone systems for the regulation and maintenance of neuronal and synaptic function. The significance of synaptic chaperones is best illustrated by cysteine-string protein (CSP), a member of the DnaJ/Hsp40 family of Hsp70/Hsc70 co-chaperones. CSP recruits the ubiquitous chaperone Hsc70 to synaptic vesicles forming a chaperone complex that maintains synaptic function and prevents neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize studies that demonstrate CSP's neuroprotective role for synaptic function and -discuss insights into its possible clientele (the proteins whose function it facilitates).
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