Mammalian cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) are key phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that play a distinctive role in metabolic activation or metabolic clearance of a variety of procarcinogens, drugs, and endogenous substances. Human CYP1A subfamily contains two members (hCYP1A1 and hCYP1A2), which are known to catalyze the oxidative activation of some environmental procarcinogens into carcinogenic species. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that CYP1A inhibitor therapies are promising strategies for cancer chemoprevention or overcoming CYP1A-associated drug toxicity and resistance. Herein, we reviewed recent advances in the discovery and characterization of hCYP1A inhibitors, from the discovery approaches to structural features and biomedical applications of hCYP1A inhibitors. The inhibition potentials, inhibition modes, and inhibition constants of all reported hCYP1A inhibitors are comprehensively summarized. Meanwhile, the structural features and structure–activity relationships of different classes of hCYP1A1 and hCYP1A2 inhibitors are analyzed and discussed in depth. Furthermore, the major challenges and future directions for this field are presented and highlighted. Collectively, the information and knowledge presented here will strongly facilitate the researchers to discover and develop more efficacious CYP1A inhibitors for specific purposes, such as chemo-preventive agents or as tool molecules in hCYP1A–related fundamental studies.
- cytochrome P450
- structure–activity relationships (SARs)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Drug Discovery