Current Landscape of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: Is There a Role for Additional T-Cell Blockade? †

Vanessa Ogbuji, Irasema C. Paster, Alejandro Recio-Boiles, Jennifer S. Carew, Steffan T. Nawrocki, Juan Chipollini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common form of bladder cancer (BC) and is the variant with the most immunogenic response. This makes urothelial carcinoma an ideal candidate for immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Key immune checkpoint proteins PD-1 and CTLA-4 are frequently expressed on T-cells in urothelial carcinoma. The blockade of this immune checkpoint can lead to the reactivation of lymphocytes and augment the anti-tumor immune response. The only immune checkpoint inhibitors that are FDA-approved for metastatic urothelial carcinoma target the programmed death-1 receptor and its ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) axis. However, the overall response rate and progression-free survival rates of these agents are limited in this patient population. Therefore, there is a need to find further immune-bolstering treatment combinations that may positively impact survival for patients with advanced UC. In this review, the current immune checkpoint inhibition treatment landscape is explored with an emphasis on combination therapy in the form of PD-1/PD-L1 with CTLA-4 blockade. The investigation of the current literature on immune checkpoint inhibition found that preclinical data show a decrease in tumor volumes and size when PD-1/PD-L1 is blocked, and similar results were observed with CTLA-4 blockade. However, there are limited investigations evaluating the combination of CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. We anticipate this review to provide a foundation for a deeper experimental investigation into combination immune checkpoint inhibition therapy in metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number131
JournalCancers
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Keywords

  • bladder cancer
  • CTLA-4
  • immune checkpoint inhibitor
  • PD-1
  • urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Current Landscape of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: Is There a Role for Additional T-Cell Blockade? †'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this