COVID-19 Infection, the COVID-19 Pandemic, and Changes in Sleep

Sidney M. Donzella, Lindsay N. Kohler, Tracy E. Crane, Elizabeth T. Jacobs, Kacey C. Ernst, Melanie L. Bell, Collin J. Catalfamo, Rachelle Begay, Kristen Pogreba-Brown, Leslie V. Farland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in sleep patterns among individuals with and without laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 test results and self-reported measures recalling sleep habits prior to and during the pandemic were collected from May 2020 to March 2021 among 1,848 individuals in The Arizona CoVHORT Study. We used linear and logistic regression to model the association between test status, presentation of symptoms, and time since test result with sleep duration and trouble sleeping, respectively. Mixed models were used to investigate change in sleep duration prior to the pandemic compared to during the pandemic. Overall, 16.2% of the sample were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 64.3% were SARS-CoV-2 negative, and 19.5% were untested for SARS-CoV-2. Independent of SARS-CoV-2 infection status, all participants slept longer during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic (Δ SARS-CoV-2 positive: 77.7 min, 95% CI 67.9, 87.5; Δ SARS-CoV-2 negative: 13.4 min, 95% CI 8.4, 18.3). However, SARS-CoV-2 positive participants slept 60.9 min longer (95% CI 49.1, 72.8) than SARS-CoV-2 negative participants in multivariable-adjusted models and had greater odds of trouble sleeping three or more times per week since the start of the pandemic (OR: 1.34 95% CI 1.02, 1.77) This greater odds of trouble sleeping persisted for participants who reported sleep habits > 30 days after their positive SARS-CoV-2 (OR: 2.11 95% CI 1.47, 3.03). Sleep patterns among non-hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 were altered following infection, regardless of the presentation of symptoms and time since infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number795320
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
StatePublished - Jan 31 2022


  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • sleep
  • sleep patterns
  • sleep quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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