Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness: methodologies for evaluating innovative pharmaceutical services.

W. F. McGhan, C. R. Rowland, J. L. Bootman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis techniques which can be of assistance in the evaluation of innovative pharmaceutical services are reviewed. Process and outcome measures are considered, and suggested steps in a cost-benefit study are presented. Samples of pharmacy studies using these techniques are appraised. Possible measures for benefits and costs along with literature references for evaluations of innovative pharmaceutical services are presented. Areas of pharmaceutical service discussed are ambulatory patient consultation, unit dose drug distribution, drug information services, monitoring drug therapy in acute care and long-term care, parenteral admixture services, patient and therapy responsibilities, patient discharge interviews, patient drug histories and profiles, and personnel substitutions. Although there have been several encouraging reports on the cost-benefit of pharmaceutical services, more evaluative research is needed to develop programs which maximize the benefit-to-cost ratio to society.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-140
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1978

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Leadership and Management
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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