Cosmic chronometers in the Rh = ct universe

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79 Scopus citations


The use of luminous red galaxies as cosmic chronometers provides us with an indispensable method of measuring the universal expansion rate H(z) in a model-independent way. Unlike many probes of the cosmological history, this approach does not rely on integrated quantities, such as the luminosity distance, and therefore does not require the pre-assumption of any particular model, which may bias subsequent interpretations of the data. We employ three statistical tools . the Akaike, Kullback and Bayes Information Criteria (AIC, KIC and BIC) . to compare the δ cold dark matter (δCDM) model and the Rh = ct Universe with the currently available measurements of H(z), and show that the Rh = ct Universe is favoured by these model selection criteria. The parameters in each model are individually optimized by maximum likelihood estimation. The Rh =ct Universe fits the data with a reduced χ2 dof = 0.745 for a Hubble constant H0 = 63.2 ± 1.6 km s-1 Mpc-1, and H0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal δCDM model, which has three free parameters (including H0 = 68.9 ± 3.3 km s.1 Mpc.1, σm = 0.32, and a dark-energy equation of state pde =-ρde), fits the H(z) data with a reduced χ2 dof = 0.777. With these χ2 dof values, the AIC yields a likelihood of .82 per cent that the distance.redshift relation of the Rh = ct Universe is closer to the correct cosmology, than is the case for δCDM. If the alternative BIC criterion is used, the respective Bayesian posterior probabilities are 91.2 per cent (Rh = ct) versus 8.8 per cent (δCDM). Using the concordance δCDM parameter values, rather than those obtained by fitting δCDM to the cosmic chronometer data, would further disfavour δCDM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2669-2675
Number of pages7
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • Abundances - galaxies
  • Evolution - cosmological parameters - cosmology
  • Methods
  • Observations - cosmology
  • Statistical - galaxies
  • Theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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