Cortical excitability and plasticity in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of transcranial magnetic stimulation studies

Ying hui Chou, Mark Sundmana, Viet Ton That, Jacob Greena, Chrisopher Trapani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique. When stimulation is applied over the primary motor cortex and coupled with electromyography measures, TMS can probe functions of cortical excitability and plasticity in vivo. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the utility of TMS-derived measures for differentiating patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from cognitively normal older adults (CN). Methods: Databases searched included PubMed, Embase, APA PsycInfo, Medline, and CINAHL Plus from inception to July 2021. Results: Sixty-one studies with a total of 2728 participants (1454 patients with AD, 163 patients with MCI, and 1111 CN) were included. Patients with AD showed significantly higher cortical excitability, lower cortical inhibition, and impaired cortical plasticity compared to the CN cohorts. Patients with MCI exhibited increased cortical excitability and reduced plasticity compared to the CN cohort. Additionally, lower cognitive performance was significantly associated with higher cortical excitability and lower inhibition. No seizure events due to TMS were reported, and the mild adverse response rate is approximately 3/1000 (i.e., 9/2728). Conclusions: Findings of our meta-analysis demonstrate the potential of using TMS-derived cortical excitability and plasticity measures as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AD and MCI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101660
JournalAgeing Research Reviews
Volume79
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Cortical excitability
  • Inhibition
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Plasticity
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Aging
  • Molecular Biology
  • Neurology

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