Cooperative role of NF-κB and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) in the TNF-induced inhibition of PHEX expression in osteoblasts

Pawel M. Majewski, Robert D. Thurston, Rajalakshmy Ramalingam, Pawel R. Kiela, Fayez K. Ghishan

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24 Scopus citations


Reduced bone mass is a common complication in chronic inflammatory diseases, although the mechanisms are not completely understood. The PHEX gene encodes a zinc endopeptidase expressed in osteoblasts and contributes to bone mineralization. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism involved in TNF-mediated down-regulation of Phex gene transcription. We demonstrate down-regulation of the Phex gene in two models of colitis: naive T-cell transfer and in gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mice. In vitro, TNF decreased expression of Phex in UMR106 cells and did not require de novo synthesis of a transrepressor. Transfecting UMR-106 cells with a series of deletion constructs of the proximal Phex promoter identified a region located within -74 nucleotides containing NF-κB and AP-1 binding sites. After TNF treatment, the RelA/p50 NF-κB complex interacted with two cis-elements at positions -70/-66 and -29/-25 nucleotides in the proximal Phex promoter. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling increased the basal level of Phex transcription and abrogated the effects of TNF, whereas overexpression of RelA mimicked the effect of TNF. We identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) binding immediately upstream of the NF-κB sites and showed that TNF induced poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ation of RelA when bound to the Phex promoter. TNF-mediated Phex down-regulation was completely abrogated in vitro by PARP-1 inhibitor and overexpression of poly-(ADP-ribose) glucohydrolase (PARG) and in vivo in PARP-1-/- mice. Our results suggest that NF-κB signaling and PARP-1 enzymatic activity cooperatively contribute to the constitutive and inducible suppression of Phex. The described phenomenon likely contributes to the loss of bone mass density in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)34828-34838
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number45
StatePublished - Nov 5 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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