Converged journalism: practices and influences in Pakistan

Muhammad Ittefaq, Waqas Ejaz, Shahira S. Fahmy, Ammar Malik Sheikh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Based on the hierarchy of influences model, we explored journalists’ understanding and perceptions about media convergence in Pakistan’s media industry and its influence on journalistic practices and routines. In-depth interviews with Pakistani news practitioners revealed several challenges hindering the successful implementation of media convergence in Pakistan. These challenges included the lack of resources for incorporating digital technologies, the lack of financial incentives, and stringent journalistic work routines, we found that technology-induced routines have severely affected both the personal and the professional lives of media practitioners. The adoption of convergence in Pakistan has been largely based on economic and commercial concerns rather than attempts to improve the quality of media content. Overall, the work contributes to the media convergence literature by providing insights from an emerging non-Western media system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)167-182
Number of pages16
JournalMedia International Australia
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Pakistani journalists
  • interactive media
  • media convergence
  • the hierarchy of influences model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Communication


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