The geochemical nature and health hazards of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the street dust of Bandar Abbas, Iran, are investigated in this study based on 27 street dust samples. Mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, and Hg revealed elevated concentrations as compared to the world soil average. Calculated enrichment factors (EFs) indicated that there is very high contamination in dust particles owing to anthropogenic emissions. Two main sources of PTEs are traffic emissions (Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, As, Cd, Sb, and Hg) and resuspended soil particles (Al, Ti, Ni, and Cr). Statistical analysis shows that Al, Mn, Ni, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Co are geogenic, whereas PAHs are mainly derived from traffic emissions. Values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), as derived from a modified model of the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), indicate that Bandar Abbas residents are potentially exposed to high cancer risk, especially via dust ingestion and dermal contact, whereas the level of hazard index (HI), hazard quotients (HQ), and cancer risk associated with exposure to the elements in street dust fall lower than threshold values representative of health risks.
- Bandar Abbas
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
- Potentially toxic elements (PTEs)
- Street dust
- health risk assessment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Global and Planetary Change