Construction of Dynamically Equivalent Time-Invariant Forms for Time-Periodic Systems

S. C. Sinha, E. A. Butcher, A. Dávid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


In this study dynamically equivalent time-invariant forms are obtained for linear and non-linear systems with periodically varying coefficients via Lyapunov-Floquet (L-F) transformation. These forms are equivalent in the sense that the local stability and bifurcation characteristics are identical for both systems in the entire parameter space. It is well known that the L-F transformation converts a linear periodic first order system into a time-invariant one. In the first part of this study a set of linear second order periodic equations is converted into an equivalent set of time-independent second order equations through a sequence of linear transformations. Then the transformations are applied to a time-periodic quadratic Hamiltonian to obtain its equivalent time-invariant form. In the second part, time-invariant forms of nonlinear equations are studied. The application of L-F transformation to a quasi-linear periodic equation converts the linear part to a time-invariant form and leaves the non-linear part with time-periodic coefficients. Dynamically equivalent time-invariant forms are obtained via time-periodic center manifold reduction and time-dependent normal form theory. Such forms are constructed for general hyperbolic systems and for some simple critical cases, including that of one zero eigenvalue and a purely imaginary pair. As a physical example of these techniques, a single and a double inverted pendulum subjected to periodic parametric excitation are considered. The results thus obtained are verified by numerical simulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203-221
Number of pages19
JournalNonlinear Dynamics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1998


  • Critical systems
  • Nonlinear
  • Time-invariant forms
  • Time-periodic systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Construction of Dynamically Equivalent Time-Invariant Forms for Time-Periodic Systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this