Considering depression as a secondary outcome in the optimization of physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors in the PACES trial: a factorial randomized controlled trial

Chad D. Rethorst, Thomas J. Carmody, Keith E. Argenbright, Taryn L. Mayes, Heidi A. Hamann, Madhukar H. Trivedi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Depressive symptoms result in considerable burden for breast cancer survivors. Increased physical activity may reduce these burdens but existing evidence from physical activity interventions in equivocal. Furthermore, physical activity intervention strategies may differentially impact depressive symptoms, which should be considered in designing and optimizing behavioral interventions for breast cancer survivors. Methods: The Physical Activity for Cancer Survivors (PACES) trial enrolled 336 participants breast cancer survivors, who were 3 months to 10 years post-treatment, and insufficiently active (< 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week). Participants were randomly assigned to a combination of 4 intervention strategies in a full-factorial design: 1) supervised exercise sessions, 2) facility access, 3) Active Living Every Day, and 4) Fitbit self-monitoring. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, mid-intervention (3 months), and post-intervention (6 months) using the Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptoms. Change in depressive symptoms were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. Results: Results from the linear mixed-effects model indicated that depressive symptoms decreased significantly across the entire study sample over the 6-month intervention (F = 4.09, p = 0.044). A significant ALED x time interaction indicated participants who received the ALED intervention experienced greater reductions in depressive symptoms (F = 5.29, p = 0.022). No other intervention strategy significantly impacted depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The ALED intervention consists of strategies (i.e., goal setting, social support) that may have a beneficial impact on depressive symptoms above and beyond the effect of increased physical activity. Our findings highlight the need to consider secondary outcomes when designing and optimizing physical activity interventions. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03060941. Posted February 23, 2017.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number47
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Behavioral interventions
  • Breast cancer survivors
  • Depression
  • Intervention optimization
  • Physical activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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