Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) has been reported in infants and children, but not in neonates. AIN is caused by antibodies produced by the patient against their own neutrophils; therefore, it differs from the more common alloimmune neonatal neutropenia and the neonatal neutropenia because of a maternal autoimmune disease in which antineutrophil antibodies of maternal origin cross the placenta. We observed 2 cases of congenital AIN in premature neonates. These are the youngest reported cases, and indicate that AIN can have a prenatal onset. Examination of the bone marrow biopsies revealed an increase in B lymphocytes and myeloperoxidase-positive cells with a maturation arrest at the myelocyte stage. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor effectively treated the neutropenia, as it does in infantile AIN. Ten months after the diagnosis, 1 of the patients still requires recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating administration.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health