Computer-generated holograms for optical neural networks: On-axis versus off-axis geometry

Paul E. Keller, Arthur F. Gmitro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


For optical neural networks implemented with computer-generated planar holograms the space-bandwidth product of the hologram is a major consideration. Off-axis holograms can be fabricated with a single binary transmission mask. However, the carrier frequency greatly increases the space-bandwidth product. On axis-holograms use a lower space-bandwidth product to encode interconnections but require a multilevel phase transmission profile. Significant errors can result during the fabrication of multilevel phase structures. With modification of the on-axis geometry the effects of the fabrication errors can be reduced while a lower space-bandwidth product per interconnection is retained. The interconnection accuracy, the diffraction efficiency, the and sensitivity to fabrication errors are compared for the off-axis, the on-axis, and the modified on-axis diffraction geometries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1304-1310
Number of pages7
JournalApplied optics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Mar 10 1993


  • Computer-generated holograms
  • Diffractive optics
  • Multifaceted holograms
  • Neural networks
  • Optical computing
  • Optical interconnects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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