Computer-displayed eye position as a visual aid to pulmonary nodule interpretation

Harold L. Kundel, Calvin F. Nodine, Elizabeth A. Krupinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


Approximately 30% of nodules are missed during the initial reading of chest radiographs. Eye-position recordings have shown that most nodules that are missed receive prolonged visual attention. A computer algorithm was developed that uses eyeposition and gaze-duration times to identify locations on the chest image likely to contain missed nodules. These locations are highlighted on the displayed image to give visual feedback. The current study tested whether visual feedback was an effective aid to nodule detection. Six radiology residents searched 40 chest images for nodules while their eye-position and gazeduration times were recorded. Half received displayed visual feedback and half were given a second view without feedback. Two months later the two groups returned and viewed the images in the opposite condition to counterbalance for possible practice effects. Performance of readers who were given feedback showed an average of 16% improvement as measured by the alternative free response operating characteristic (AFROC) curve area, A,. Performance of the same readers given a second look without feedback did not improve.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)890-896
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Radiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1990


  • Computer aids
  • Diagnostic radiology
  • Lung nodules
  • Observer performance
  • Visual feedback
  • Visual perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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