Composite lighting for controlled-environment plant factories

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


One of the consequences of employing artificial lighting to supplement solar irradiance either in a greenhouse [1–3] or in a controlled-environment plant growth chamber, wherein solar irradiance is transmitted through optical cables from solar concentrating systems [4–6], is the subjection of the growing crops to lighting profiles that differ from the conventional lighting profile. The daily lighting profile of a conventional electric-based plant-lighting system can generally be represented by a rectangular wave (Figure 1A) whose height represents the magnitude of the instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux (PPF, in μmol m 2 sec 1), whose length represents the daily photoperiod (P, in hr), and whose area represents the daily integrated PPF (Q, in mol m 2 day 1). For a hybrid solar and artificial lighting system, the daily lighting profile that results is a composite lighting profile (Figure 1B), typically consisting of an approximately bell-shaped curve, representing the solar component, that is superimposed over a rectangular wave, representing the artificial lighting component. The total of the area under the solar curve and the area of the rectangular wave represents the daily integrated PPF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Plant and Crop Physiology, Second Edition
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9780203908426
ISBN (Print)9780824705466
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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