Comparison of quality-of-life instruments in childhood intermittent exotropia

Sarah R. Hatt, David A. Leske, Jonathan M. Holmes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Purpose: To compare 2 health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instruments: the condition-specific Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire (IXTQ) and the generic Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) in children with intermittent exotropia. Methods: Fifty-one children with intermittent exotropia (median, 7 years; range, 5-16 years) were recruited from outpatient clinics with one of their parents. All children completed age-appropriate Child IXTQ (12 items) and Child PedsQL (23 items). Parents completed parallel Proxy IXTQ and Proxy PedsQL (parent assessment of child's HRQOL). Possible scores ranged from 0 to 100 (worst to best HRQOL). Normal thresholds were defined using the 5th percentile in a control group of 47 normal nonstrabismic children. Proportions scoring below normal on each questionnaire were compared. Median scores in intermittent exotropia and control groups also were compared. Results: More scores were subnormal using Proxy IXTQ than Proxy PedsQL (55% vs 18%, p = 0.0004). When Child questionnaires were used, we found that similar proportions scored below normal (IXTQ 8% vs PedsQL 14%, p = 0.3). Median scores were lower for intermittent exotropia children compared with control patients for Child IXTQ (83 vs 92; p = 0.04), Proxy IXTQ (81 vs 98; p < 0.0001), and Proxy PedsQL (p = 0.04) but not for Child PedsQL (p = 0.3). Conclusions: The Proxy IXTQ detects reduced HRQOL related to intermittent exotropia more often than the Proxy PedsQL. There were few subnormal scores on Child IXTQ and Child PedsQL. Children with intermittent exotropia scored, on average, lower than control patients on the IXTQ, but most individual scores fell within the normal range. The IXTQ may prove useful for clinical assessment of intermittent exotropia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)221-226
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of AAPOS
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2010
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Ophthalmology


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