Comparative value-based pricing of an Ebola vaccine in resource-constrained countries based on cost-effectiveness analysis

M. Obeng-Kusi, B. Erstad, D. J. Roe, I. Abraham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Pricing, affordability, and access are important deliberations around infectious disease interventions. Determining a fair price that not only incentivizes development but ensures value and access for patients is critical given the increasing global health crisis. Using Ebola virus disease (EVD) as an exemplar, we aim to elucidate the estimation of a jurisdiction-specific value-based price (VBP) for a vaccine package and to consider how prices compare across selected countries that have experienced EVD outbreaks. Methods: Using a dynamic transmission model, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of a vaccine package–composed of the vaccine, storage, maintenance, and administration–for vaccination toward herd immunity in 4 countries affected with EVD (Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Uganda). Based on the cost-effectiveness metrics and using willingness-to-pay thresholds equal to varying percentages of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), we demonstrated how a VBP is calculated using a cost-effectiveness-based approach. Results: The VBP for the vaccine is directly proportional to effectiveness (DALYs prevented), cost-effectiveness (ICER) and GDP per capita. Higher effectiveness, greater cost-effectiveness, and higher GDP per capita resulted in higher price ceilings compared to lower cost-effectiveness and lower GDP. Conclusion: Despite the concerns with the cost-effectiveness-based approach, we illustrated that it is an easily comprehensible method for determining the VBP of a vaccine using cost-effectiveness analysis. Choice of data, population characteristics, and disease dynamics are among the factors that need to be considered when comparisons are made across countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)894-902
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of medical economics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Ebola virus disease
  • Value-based pricing
  • cost-effectiveness comparison
  • pricing
  • value

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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