Compact fiber-based multi-photon endoscope working at 1700 nm

Farhad Akhoundi, Yukun Qin, N. Peyghambarian, Jennifer K. Barton, Khanh Kieu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


We present the design, implementation and performance analysis of a compact multi-photon endoscope based on a piezo electric scanning tube. A miniature objective lens with a long working distance and a high numerical aperture (≈ 0: 5) is designed to provide a diffraction limited spot size. Furthermore, a 1700 nm wavelength femtosecond fiber laser is used as an excitation source to overcome the scattering of biological tissues and reduce water absorption. Therefore, the novel optical system along with the unique wavelength allows us to increase the imaging depth. We demonstrate that the endoscope is capable of performing third and second harmonic generation (THG/SHG) and three-photon excitation fluorescence (3PEF) imaging over a large field of view (> 400 µm) with high lateral resolution (2: 2 µm). The compact and lightweight probe design makes it suitable for minimally-invasive in-vivo imaging as a potential alternative to surgical biopsies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number#320649
Pages (from-to)2326-2335
Number of pages10
JournalBiomedical Optics Express
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2018


  • Endoscopic imaging
  • Medical and biological imaging
  • Nonlinear microscopy
  • Ultrafast technology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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