Common Method Bias: It’s Bad, It’s Complex, It’s Widespread, and It’s Not Easy to Fix

Philip M. Podsakoff, Nathan P. Podsakoff, Larry J. Williams, Chengquan Huang, Junhui Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Despite recognition of the harmful effects of common method bias (CMB), its causes, consequences, and remedies are still not well understood. There- fore, the purpose of this article is to review our current knowledge of CMB and provide recommendations on how to control it.We organize our review into five main sections. First, we explain the harmful effects of CMB (why it is bad). Second, we discuss the complexity caused by the fact that there are multiple sources of CMB, several of which are likely to be present in any study. Third, we present evidence that the conditions under which CMB is likely to occur are relatively widespread, and fourth, we explain why CMB is not easy to fix. Finally, we identify several avenues for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-61
Number of pages45
JournalAnnual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior
StatePublished - Jan 22 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Harman’s single-factor test
  • common method variance
  • marker variable technique
  • procedural and statistical remedies
  • same-source bias

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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