Combined micro CT and histopathology for evaluation of skeletal metastasis in live animals

Christopher P. Geffre, Erika Pond, Gerald D. Pond, Isis C. Sroka, Jaime M. Gard, Bethany A. Skovan, William E. Meek, Terry H. Landowski, Raymond B. Nagle, Anne E. Cress

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Bone is a favored site for solid tumor metastasis, especially among patients with breast, lung or prostate carcinomas. Micro CT is a powerful and inexpensive tool that can be used to investigate tumor progression in xenograft models of human disease. Many previous studies have relied on terminal analysis of harvested bones to document metastatic tumor activity. The current protocol uses live animals and combines sequential micro CT evaluation of lesion development with matched histopathology at the end of the study. The approach allows for both rapid detection and evaluation of bone lesion progression in live animals. Bone resident tumors are established either by direct (intraosseous) or arterial (intracardiac) injection, and lesion development is evaluated for up to eight weeks. This protocol provides a clinically relevant method for investigating bone metastasis progression and the development of osteotropic therapeutic strategies for the treatment of bone metastases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)348-355
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Translational Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2015


  • Bone
  • Histopathology
  • Metastasis
  • Micro CT
  • Prostate cancer
  • Xenograft

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cancer Research


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