Combined biomechanical and tomographic keratoconus staging: Adding a biomechanical parameter to the ABCD keratoconus staging system

Elias Flockerzi, Riccardo Vinciguerra, Michael Wellington Belin, Paolo Vinciguerra, Renato Ambrósio, Berthold Seitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Purpose: This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated the potential of an additional biomechanical parameter ‘E’ as an addition to the tomographic ABCD ectasia/keratoconus (KC) staging. Methods: The Corvis Biomechanical Factor (CBiF) represents the modified linear term of the Corvis Biomechanical Index (CBI) developed based on 448 KC corneas from the Homburg Keratoconus Center (HKC). The CBiF range was divided into five stages (E0 to E4) to create a grading system according to the ABCD stages. Stage E0 was characterized by values smaller than the 2.5 percentile. The thresholds were created by dividing the CBiF range between the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles into four groups of equal values (E1–E4). The frequency distribution of ‘E’ was analysed and independently validated based on another 860 KC corneas dataset from Milano and Rio de Janeiro (MR). The relationship between ‘E’ and the ABCD staging was analysed by cross-tabulation. The specificity of ‘E’ was assessed based on healthy controls (112|851) from both datasets (HKC|MR). Results: ‘E’ was normally distributed with E0 = 37|30, E1 = 86|200, E2 = 155|354, E3 = 101|206, E4 = 69|70 in the KC group and 96.4%|90.5% of the controls classified E0 in the HKC|MR dataset, respectively. Cross-tabulation revealed that ‘E’ was most comparable to posterior corneal curvature (‘B’) in both datasets, while showing a trend towards more advanced stages in comparison to anterior corneal curvature (‘A’) and thinnest corneal thickness (‘C’). Conclusion: The novel Corvis-derived parameter ‘E’ provides a biomechanical staging for ectasia/KC potentially enhancing the ABCD staging and may detect abnormalities before tomographic changes, which requires further studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e1135-e1142
JournalActa Ophthalmologica
Issue number5
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • ABCD grading
  • Corvis
  • Corvis Biomechanical Index
  • biomechanics
  • correlation
  • keratoconus
  • tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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