Chemopreventive agents in colorectal cancer possess either antiproliferative or anti-inflammatory actions. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and cyclooxy-genase-2 inhibitors have shown promise, but are compromised by side effects. Nitric oxide donor NSAIDs are organic nitrates conjugated via a labile linker to an NSAID, originally designed for use in pain relief, that have shown efficacy in colorectal cancer chemoprevention. The NO chimera, GT-094, is a novel nitrate containing an NSAID and disulfide pharmacophores, a lead compound for the design of agents specifically for colorectal cancer. GT-094 is the first nitrate reported to reduce aberrant crypt foci (by 45%) when administered after carcinogen in the standard azoxymethane rat model of colorectal cancer. Analysis of proximal and distal colon tissue from 8- and 28-week rat/azoxymethane studies showed that GT-094 treatment reduced colon crypt proliferation by 30% to 69%, reduced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) levels by 33% to 67%, reduced poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 expression and cleavage 2- to 4-fold, and elevated levels of p27 in the distal colon 3-fold. Studies in cancer cell cultures recapitulated actions of GT-094: antiproliferative activity and transient G2-M phase cell cycle block were measured in Caco-2 cells; apoptotic activity was examined but not observed; anti-inflammatory activity was seen in the inhibition of up-regulation of iNOS and endogenous NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. In summary, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective activity observed in vivo and in vitro support GT-094 as a lead compound for the design of NO chimeras for colorectal cancer chemoprevention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research