Coinfusion of irradiated splenocytes with low titer tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes augments antitumor efficacy in adoptive immunotherapy

Bruce J. Averbook, Ronald P. Cleveland, Chad Viscusi, Robert Papay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We hypothesized that adoptively increasing the density of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) at a tumor site would improve tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) in vivo antitumor efficacy. Irradiated splenocytes were used as crude APCs. Alone, they did not have in vitro antitumor activity nor did they augment TIL efficacy in vitro. Pulmonary metastases were established by intravenous (IV) injection of 5 × 105 MC-38 tumor into irradiated C57B1/6 mice (500 cGy). After 3 days, MC-38 TIL (0.1, 0.5, and 1 × 106 cells) ± irradiated splenocytes (5,000 cGy) as APCs were administered intravenously (0.25, 0.5, and 1 × 106 cells) to each group (n = 5/group). Interleukin-2 (60,000 IU) was injected intraperitoneally three times daily for 3 days. Mice were sacrificed 9 days later and metastases elaborated in blinded fashion. A titer of 1 × 106 TIL, completely eradicated pulmonary metastases. In two consecutive experiments, when increasing titers of irradiated splenocytes were coinfused with a constant titer of TIL that did not completely eradicate pulmonary metastases, a moderate reduction in pulmonary metastases was observed. The contribution of splenocytes to an improvement in TIL antitumor efficacy was not altered when irradiated splenocytes derived from mice bearing 10-day subcutaneous MC-38 tumors were used. The coinfusion of nonirradiated splenocytes did not improve TIL antitumor in vivo activity. Activated B cells (expressing ICAM-1, B7.1, and B7.2) had no effect on in vitro tumor lysis and did not augment in vivo TIL efficacy. The results show a modest but statistically significant improvement in adoptive immunotherapy antitumor efficacy with fewer TIL by coinfusion of irradiated splenocytes. Further studies to characterize the active potential APC cell subpopulation and to clarify the mechanism(s) responsible for in vivo augmentation of TIL antitumor efficacy are in progress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)124-134
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Immunotherapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1999


  • Adoptive immunotherapy
  • Antigen-presenting cells
  • Cancer
  • IL-2
  • Splenocytes
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research


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