## Abstract

Graph states are a central resource in measurement-based quantum information processing. In the photonic qubit architecture based on Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) encoding, the generation of high-fidelity graph states composed of realistic, finite-energy approximate GKP-encoded qubits thus constitutes a key task. We consider the finite-energy approximation of GKP-qubit states given by a coherent superposition of shifted finite-squeezed vacuum states, where the displacements are Gaussian distributed. We present an exact description of graph states composed of such approximate GKP qubits as a coherent superposition of a Gaussian ensemble of randomly displaced ideal GKP-qubit graph states. Using standard Gaussian dynamics, we track the transformation of the covariance matrix and the mean-displacement vector elements of the Gaussian distribution of the ensemble under tools such as GKP-Steane error-correction and fusion operations that can be used to grow large high-fidelity GKP-qubit graph states. The covariance matrix elements capture the noise in the graph state due to the finite-energy approximation of GKP qubits, while the mean displacements relate to the possible absolute shift errors on the individual qubits arising conditionally from the homodyne measurements that are a part of these tools. Our work thus pins down an exact coherent error model for graph states generated from truly finite-energy GKP qubits, which can shed light on their error-correction properties.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 052416 |

Journal | Physical Review A |

Volume | 105 |

Issue number | 5 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - May 2022 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics