Background. Anal canal adenocarcinoma (AA) is an uncommon tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. We seek to provide a detailed description of the incidence, demographics, and outcome of this rare tumor in the United States. Methods. The data on anal canal adenocarcinoma from SEER Program, between 1973-2015, were extracted. We analyzed the incidence rates by demographics and tumor characteristics, followed by analysis of its impact on survival. Results. The incidence of AA increased initially by 4.03% yearly from 1973 to 1985 but had a modest decline of 0.32% annually thereafter. The mean age for diagnosis of AA was 68.12 ± 14.02 years. Males outnumbered females by 54.8 to 45.2%. Tumors were mostly localized on presentation (44.4%) and moderately differentiated (41.1%). Age generally correlated with poor overall cancer survival. However, young patients (age <40 years) also showed poor long-term survival. Patients with localized disease and well-differentiated tumors showed better survival outcomes. Surgical intervention improved survival significantly as compared to patients who did not (116.7 months vs 42.7 months, p<0.01). Conclusions. Anal canal adenocarcinoma demonstrated a poor bimodal cancer-free survival in both younger and older patient groups. Surgery significantly improves odds of survival and should be offered to patients amenable to intervention.
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