Clinical, technical, and implementation characteristics of real-world health applications using FHIR

Ashley C. Griffin, Lu He, Anthony P. Sunjaya, Andrew J. King, Zubin Khan, Martin Nwadiugwu, Brian Douthit, Vignesh Subbian, Viet Nguyen, Mark Braunstein, Charles Jaffe, Titus Schleyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: Understanding the current state of real-world Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) applications (apps) will benefit biomedical research and clinical care and facilitate advancement of the standard. This study aimed to provide a preliminary assessment of these apps' clinical, technical, and implementation characteristics. Materials and Methods: We searched public repositories for potentially eligible FHIR apps and surveyed app implementers and other stakeholders. Results: Of the 112 apps surveyed, most focused on clinical care (74) or research (45); were implemented across multiple sites (56); and used SMART-on-FHIR (55) and FHIR version R4 (69). Apps were primarily stand-alone web-based (67) or electronic health record (EHR)-embedded (51), although 49 were not listed in an EHR app gallery. Discussion: Though limited in scope, our results show FHIR apps encompass various domains and characteristics. Conclusion: As FHIR use expands, this study - one of the first to characterize FHIR apps at large - highlights the need for systematic, comprehensive methods to assess their characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberooac077
JournalJAMIA Open
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022


  • application programming interface
  • fast healthcare interoperability resources
  • health information interoperability
  • medical informatics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics


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