Clinical presentations, pathogenesis, and therapy of sarcoidosis: State of the art

Francesca Polverino, Elisabetta Balestro, Paolo Spagnolo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas that can occur in any organ, most commonly the lungs. Early and accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains challenging because initial presentations may vary, many patients are asymptomatic, and there is no single reliable diagnostic test. Prognosis is variable and depends on epidemiologic factors, mode of onset, initial clinical course, and specific organ involvement. From a pathobiological standpoint, sarcoidosis represents an immune paradox, where an excessive spread of both the innate and the adaptive immune arms of the immune system is accompanied by a state of partial immune anergy. For all these reasons, the optimal treatment for sarcoidosis remains unclear, with corticosteroid therapy being the current gold standard for those patients with significantly symptomatic or progressive pulmonary disease or serious extrapulmonary disease. This review is a state of the art of clinical presentations and immunological features of sarcoidosis, and the current therapeutic approaches used to treat the disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2363
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • Antigen
  • Clinical presentation
  • Immunity
  • Pathogenesis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Systemic involvement
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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