Classification of metal-oxide bonded interactions based on local potential- and kinetic-energy densities

G. V. Gibbs, D. F. Cox, T. D. Crawford, K. M. Rosso, N. L. Ross, R. T. Downs

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38 Scopus citations


A classification of the hydrogen fluoride H-F-bonded interactions comprising a large number of molecules has been proposed by Espinosa [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 5529 (2002)] based on the ratio ∫V (rc) ∫ G (rc) where ∫V (rc) ∫ is the magnitude of the local potential-energy density and G (rc) is the local kinetic-energy density, each evaluated at a bond critical point rc. A calculation of the ratio for the M-O bonded interactions comprising a relatively large number of oxide molecules and earth materials, together with the constraints imposed by the values of ∇2 ρ (rc) and the local electronic energy density, H (rc) =G (rc) +V (rc), in the H-F study, yielded practically the same classification for the oxides. This is true despite the different trends that hold between the bond critical point and local energy density properties with the bond lengths displayed by the H-F and M-O bonded interactions. On the basis of the ratio, Li-O, Na-O, and Mg-O bonded interactions classify as closed-shell ionic bonds, Be-O, Al-O, Si-O, B-O, and P-O interactions classify as bonds of intermediate character with the covalent character increasing from Be-O to P-O. N-O interactions classify as shared covalent bonds. C-O and S-O bonded interactions classify as both intermediate and covalent bonded interactions. The C-O double- and triple-bonded interactions classify as intermediate-bonded interactions, each with a substantial component of covalent character and the C-O single-bonded interaction classifies as a covalent bond whereas their local electronic energy density values indicate that they are each covalent bonded interactions. The ratios for the Be-O, Al-O, and Si-O bonded interactions indicate that they have a substantial component of ionic character despite their classification as bonds of intermediate character. The trend between the ratio and the character of the bonded interactions is consistent with trends expected from electronegativity considerations. The ratio increases as the net charges and the coordination numbers for the atoms for several Ni-sulfides decrease. On the contrary, the ratio for the Si-O bonded interactions for the orthosilicate, forsterite, Mg2 SiO4, and the high-pressure silica polymorph, stishovite, decreases as the observed net atomic charges and the coordination numbers of Si and O increase in value. The ratio for the Ni-Ni bonded interactions for the Ni-sulfides and bulk Ni metal indicate that the interactions are intermediate in character with a substantial component of ionic character.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number084704
JournalJournal of Chemical Physics
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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