Chloroplast quality control - balancing energy production and stress

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Contents 36 I. 36 II. 37 III. 37 IV. 38 V. 39 VI. 40 VII. 40 40 References 40 SUMMARY: All organisms require the ability to sense their surroundings and adapt. Such capabilities allow them to thrive in a wide range of habitats. This is especially true for plants, which are sessile and have to be genetically equipped to withstand every change in their environment. Plants and other eukaryotes use their energy-producing organelles (i.e. mitochondria and chloroplasts) as such sensors. In response to a changing cellular or external environment, these organelles can emit 'retrograde' signals that alter gene expression and/or cell physiology. This signaling is important in plants, fungi, and animals and impacts diverse cellular functions including photosynthesis, energy production/storage, stress responses, growth, cell death, ageing, and tumor progression. Originally, chloroplast retrograde signals in plants were known to lead to the reprogramming of nuclear transcription. New research, however, has pointed to additional posttranslational mechanisms that lead to chloroplast regulation and turnover in response to stress. Such mechanisms involve singlet oxygen, ubiquitination, the 26S proteasome, and cellular degradation machinery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-41
Number of pages6
JournalNew Phytologist
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • abiotic stress
  • cellular degradation
  • chloroplast
  • photosynthesis
  • reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • signaling
  • ubiquitination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science


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