Chemical immobilization of metals and metalloids by phosphates

Erla G. Hafsteinsdóttir, Danielle Camenzuli, Amy L. Rocavert, James Walworth, Damian B. Gore

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Remediation of metal contaminated media using orthophosphate fixation forms insoluble and non-bioavailable salts from metal and phosphate sources. The main focus has been on fixation of Pb, where the formation of pyromorphite, the most insoluble lead phosphate, has shown the great potential of this remediation technique. Other metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Eu, Ni, U, Zn) also have potential for effective fixation by orthophosphate. We review the applicability of the treatment across wider environmental conditions, particularly in surface soil, its use with elements other than Pb, product stability and efficiency with mixed contaminants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-62
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Geochemistry
StatePublished - Aug 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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