Chasing extreme planetary architectures: I. HD 196885 Ab, a super-Jupiter dancing with two stars?

G. Chauvin, M. Videla, H. Beust, R. Mendez, A. C.M. Correia, S. Lacour, A. Tokovinin, J. Hagelberg, F. Bouchy, I. Boisse, C. Villegas, M. Bonavita, S. Desidera, V. Faramaz, T. Forveille, A. Gallenne, X. Haubois, J. S. Jenkins, P. Kervella, A. M. LagrangeC. Melo, P. Thebault, S. Udry, D. Segransan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Context. Planet(s) in binaries are unique architectures for testing predictions of planetary formation and evolution theories in very hostile environments. Their presence in such a highly perturbed region poses a clear challenge from the early phase of planetesimals accretion to the dynamical evolution and stability through a very long period of time (several Gyrs in some case). Aims. The combination of radial velocity, speckle interferometry, high-contrast imaging and high-precision astrometry with interferometry, offers a unique and unprecedented set of observable to push the exploration of the extreme planetary system HD196885. By dissecting the physical and orbital properties of each component, we aim at shedding light on its global architecture and stability. Methods. We used the IRDIS dual-band imager of SPHERE at VLT, and the speckle interferometric camera HRCAM of SOAR, to acquire high-angular resolution images of HD196885AB between 2015 and 2020. Radial velocity observations started in 1983 with CORAVEL at OHP have been extended with a continuous monitoring with CORALIE at La Silla, and ELODIE and SOPHIE at OHP over almost 40 yr extending the radial velocity measurements HD196885A and resolving both the binary companion and the inner giant planet HD196885Ab. Finally, we took advantage of the exquisite astrometric precision of the dual-field mode of VLTI/GRAVITY (down to 30 as) to monitor the relative position of HD196885A and B to search for the 3.6 yr astrometric wobble of the circumprimary planet Ab imprinted on the binary separation. Results. Our observations enable to accurately constrain the orbital properties of the binary HD196885 AB, seen on an inclined and retrograde orbit (iAB = 120.43 deg) with a semi-major axis of 19.78 au, and an eccentricity of 0.417. The GRAVITY measurements confirm for the first time the nature of the inner planet HD196885Ab by rejecting all families of pole-on solutions in the stellar or brown dwarf masses. The most favored island of solutions is associated with a Jupiter-like planet (MAb = 3.39 MJup), with moderate eccentricity (eAaAb = 0.44), and inclination close to 143.04 deg. This results points toward a significant mutual inclination (φ = 24.36 deg) between the orbital planes (relative to the star) of the binary companion B and the planet Ab. Our dynamical simulations indicate that the system is dynamically stable over time. Eccentricity and mutual inclination variations could be expected for moderate von Zipele Kozai Lidov cycles that may affect the inner planet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA114
JournalAstronomy and astrophysics
Volume675
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2023

Keywords

  • Binaries close
  • Instrumentation: adaptive optics
  • Instrumentation: high angular resolution
  • Instrumentation: spectrographs
  • Planet-star interactions
  • Planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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