Characterization of stable and transient cavitation in megasonically irradiated aqueous solutions

Rajesh Balachandran, Mingrui Zhao, Petrie Yam, Claudio Zanelli, Manish Keswani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Megasonic cleaning is routinely used for removal of particulate contaminants from various surfaces in integrated circuit industry. One of the drawbacks of megasonic cleaning is that although it can achieve good particle removal efficiencies at high power densities, it also causes feature damage. The current paradigm is that damage is primarily caused by transient cavitation whereas cleaning is affected by streaming and stable cavitation. In order to develop a damage-free and effective megasonic cleaning process, it is essential to understand the acoustic bubble behavior and identify conditions that generate significant stable cavitation without any transient cavitation. In the current work, microelectrode based chronoamperometry, pressure measurements using a hydrophone and fluorescence spectroscopy studies were conducted under different acoustic frequencies (1-3 MHz) and power densities (2-8 W/cm2) to fundamentally investigate the type of cavitation produced under these conditions and also establish a correlation to the generation of hydroxyl radicals for characterization of transient cavitation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-50
Number of pages6
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
StatePublished - Feb 5 2015


  • Hydrophone
  • Hydroxyl radical
  • Megasonic cleaning
  • Stable cavitation
  • Transient cavitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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