Characterization of doctor of pharmacy/health informatics dual degrees in the United States

Paige Q. Ngo, Sachpreet K. Bajaj, Ana L. Hincapie, Tyler Gallo, Kevin A. Clauson, David A. Holdford, Teresa M. Salgado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Health care is trending towards an increasing reliance on data management, technology, analytics, and automation which is also reflected in pharmacy education. This study aimed to identify and characterize doctor of pharmacy (PharmD)/master of science in health informatics (MSHI) dual-degree offerings at pharmacy institutions within the United States (US). Methods: A list of PharmD/MSHI programs was obtained from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy and the Pharmacy College Application Service. Furthermore, websites of the 143 accredited schools and colleges of pharmacy in the US were inspected to identify additional PharmD/MSHI dual degrees not identified with the previous sources and to verify that the dual degree was being actively offered at each institution. A 26-item questionnaire focusing on program structure, admissions, and output was developed and administered to program representatives via phone interview. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: Thirteen schools offering a PharmD/MSHI dual degree were identified, of which 10 participated (response rate = 77%). All programs were created within the last 10 years. Programs were similar in terms of admission requirements such as grade point average thresholds and standardized testing. Variances existed in program structure and output, such as accreditation status and number of enrollees/graduates. Conclusions: Although health informatics has become more prominent in health care, health informatics education is not yet as pervasive in the pharmacy field. The information collected may be useful for schools considering implementing or modifying their own dual degree program or for students who are interested in health informatics-specialized educational opportunities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Dual degree
  • Graduate education
  • Medical informatics
  • Pharmacy education
  • Pharmacy schools

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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