Characterization of D-maltose as a T2-exchange contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

Joshua M. Goldenberg, Mark D. Pagel, Julio Cárdenas-Rodríguez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose: We sought to investigate the potential of D-maltose, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol as T2 exchange magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. We also sought to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetics of D-maltose with D-glucose with dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. Methods: T1 and T2 relaxation time constants of the saccharides were measured using eight pH values and nine concentrations. The effect of echo spacing in a multiecho acquisition sequence used for the T2 measurement was evaluated for all samples. Finally, performances of D-maltose and D-glucose during T2-weighted DCE-MRI were compared in vivo. Results: Estimated T2 relaxivities (r2) of D-glucose and D-maltose were highly and nonlinearly dependent on pH and echo spacing, reaching their maximum at pH = 7.0 (∼0.08 mM−1 s−1). The r2 values of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol were estimated to be ∼0.02 mM−1 s−1 and were invariant to pH and echo spacing for pH ≤7.0. The change in T2 in tumor and muscle tissues remained constant after administration of D-maltose, whereas the change in T2 decreased in tumor and muscle after administration of D-glucose. Therefore, D-maltose has a longer time window for T2-weighted DCE-MRI in tumors. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that D-maltose can be used as a T2 exchange MRI contrast agent. The larger, sustained T2-weighted contrast from D-maltose relative to D-glucose has practical advantages for tumor diagnoses during T2-weighted DCE-MRI. Magn Reson Med 80:1158–1164, 2018.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1158-1164
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • D-maltose
  • T
  • tumor imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Characterization of D-maltose as a T2-exchange contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this