Characterization of carbon nanotubes by scanning probe microscopy

Mark J. Gallagher, Dong Chen, Bruce P. Jacobsen, Dror Sarid, Lowell D. Lamb, Frank A. Tinker, Jun Jiao, Donald R. Huffman, Supapan Seraphin, Dan Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Carbon nanotubes, fabricated by the Ebbesen-Ajayan method, were imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air and were compared to images obtained with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM images revealed an abundance of elongated structures ranging in diameter from 3.0 to 30 nm, and with lengths of up to 0.8 μm. Many of the structures possessed several graphitic shells as if the tubes were nested one in the other. Reproducible images of the tubular structures, typically 20 nm in diameter and with a large variation in length, were obtained with both STM and AFM when the nanotubes were deposited on hydrogen-terminated Si(111), confirming that the nested structures observed with HRTEM do indeed have a tubular morphology. No single-walled, bare nanotubes or spherical fullerenes (typical of the Krätschmer-Huffman process) were observed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)L335-L340
JournalSurface Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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