Characteristics of gaseous and particulate air pollutants at four different urban hotspots in Tehran, Iran

Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Mahdieh Delikhoon, Mehdi Jamshidi Rastani, Abbas Norouzian Baghani, Armin Sorooshian, Marzieh Rohani-Rasaf, Majid Kermani, Roshanak Rezaei Kalantary, Somayeh Golbaz, Faranak Golkhorshidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study reports a characterization of outdoor gaseous and particulate pollutants and their associated health effects in four different urban hotspots in Tehran, Iran during winter and summer. Buses, taxis, and cars are prominent sources of toxic pollutants in Tehran. There is a significant level of exposure to emissions from diesel buses in bus terminals, especially with boarding, disembarking, and waiting. Mean concentrations (μg/m3) in summer and winter, respectively, ranged from 10 to 20.67 and 17–21 for PM1, 52.50–79.19 and 58.33–85.33 for PM2.5, 64.50–102 and 78.83–125.83 for PM7, 130.17–204.67 and 157–231.67 for PM10, 261–409.50 and 305.83–458.83 for TSP, and 372.50–418.33 vs. 351.27–373.47 for CO2 (ppm). Particulate concentrations were higher in winter, especially the first three days of the week, assisted in part by the shallower mixing layer height as compared to summer. Mean hazard quotient (HQ) values for both PM2.5 and PM10 in both seasons for bus terminals in three scenarios ranged between 0.81 and 4.96, which exceeded reference levels (1 < HQ). The results of this study have implications for public health, especially in dense traffic areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102907
JournalSustainable Cities and Society
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • Bus terminal
  • CO
  • Days of the week
  • Non-carcinogenic
  • Particulate matter
  • Principal component analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Transportation


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