Changes in Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Predict Survival and Hospitalization in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

Khadijah Breathett, Larry A. Allen, James Udelson, Gordon Davis, Michael Bristow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Background - Left ventricular remodeling, as commonly measured by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), is associated with clinical outcomes. Although change in LVEF over time should reflect response to therapy and clinical course, serial measurement of LVEF is inconsistently performed in observational settings, and the incremental prognostic value of change in LVEF has not been well characterized. Methods and Results - The β-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial measured LVEF by radionuclide ventriculography at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after randomization. We built a series of multivariable models with 16 clinical parameters plus change in LVEF for predicting 4 major clinical end points, including the trial's primary end point of all-cause mortality. Among 2484 patients with at least 1 follow-up LVEF, change in LVEF was the second most significant predictor (behind baseline creatinine) of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio for improvement in LVEF by ≥5 U responder versus nonresponder [95% confidence intervals] for all-cause mortality=0.62 [0.52-0.73]). Other end points, including heart failure hospitalization or the composite of all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalization, yielded similar results. LVEF change ≥5 U was associated with a modest increase in discrimination when added to traditional predictors and was predictive of outcomes in both the bucindolol and placebo treatment groups. LVEF change as a predictor of outcomes was affected by sex and race, with evidence that LVEF improvement is associated with less survival benefit in African Americans and women. Conclusions - Serial evaluation for LVEF change predicts both survival and heart failure hospitalization and provides a dynamic/real-time measure of prognosis in heart failure with reduced LVEF. Clinical Trial Registration - URL: Unique identifier: NCT00000560.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere002962
JournalCirculation: Heart Failure
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • creatinine
  • heart failure
  • hospitalization
  • outcomes research
  • prognosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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