Change in Force-based Metrics during Outdoor 2- And 4-Mile Runs

Kristen Renner, Robin M. Queen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Changes in running gait may contribute to injury risk, but currently, this research is restricted to laboratory settings because of limitations with currently available and used technology. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if peak ground reaction force (GRF), loading rate (LR), and impulse metrics change across an outdoor run using force sensing insoles. We hypothesize that over the course of the run there would be a decline in limb symmetry for all measures and a decrease in LR and GRF values. Methods Thirty healthy participants (15 male, 15 female) were recruited for a two-visit study during which a 2- or 4-mile run was completed on the first visit and the other run distance was completed on the second visit (order was randomized). Force data were collected at 100 Hz for the duration of the run. Peak GRF, impulse, LR, and limb symmetry indices (LSI) of these variables were calculated at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the run. Results GRF decreased over the course of the runs, but the GRF LSI remained unchanged. No changes in LR were detected over the 2- or 4-mile run for either limb. The impulse LSI during the 2-mile run did indicate decreased symmetry from 25% of the run to 50% of the run, the LR LSI improved, and there was no difference in GRF LSI or any of the LSI metrics during the 4-mile run. Conclusions We posit that the lack in change in LSI was due to the courses/distance not inducing fatigue in our population. Future studies should investigate the effect of outdoor fatigue protocols and various types of terrain on force metrics and potential injury risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1922-1927
Number of pages6
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes



ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Change in Force-based Metrics during Outdoor 2- And 4-Mile Runs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this