Cell differentiation and morphogenesis are uncoupled in Arabidopsis raspberry embryos

Ramin Yadegari, Genaro R. De Paiva, Thomas Laux, Anna M. Koltunow, Nestor Apuya, J. Lynn Zimmerman, Robert L. Fischer, John J. Harada, Robert B. Goldberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

194 Scopus citations


We identified two Arabidopsis embryo mutants, designated as raspberry1 and raspberry2, by screening T-DNA-mutagenized Arabidopsis lines. Embryogenesis in these mutants is indistinguishable from that of wild-type plants until the late-globular stage, after which raspberry 1 and raspberry 2 embryos fail to undergo the transition to heart stage, remain globular shaped, and proliferate an enlarged suspensor region, raspberry 1 and raspberry 2 embryo-proper regions enlarge during embryogenesis, become highly vacuolate, and display prominent convex, or "raspberry-like," protuberances on their outer cell layers. In situ hybridization studies with several embryo cell-specific mRNA probes indicated that the raspberry1 and raspberry2 embryo-proper regions differentiate tissue layers in their correct spatial contexts and that the regulation of cell-specific genes within these layers is normal. Surprisingly, a similar spatial and temporal pattern of mRNA accumulation occurs within the enlarged suspensor region of raspberry1 and raspberry2 embryos, suggesting that a defect in embryo-proper morphogenesis can cause the suspensor to take on an embryo-proper-like state and differentiate a radial tissue-type axis. We conclude that cell differentiation can occur in the absence of both organ formation and morphogenesis during plant embryogenesis and that interactions occur between the embryo-proper and suspensor regions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1713-1729
Number of pages17
JournalPlant Cell
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Cell differentiation and morphogenesis are uncoupled in Arabidopsis raspberry embryos'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this