BACKGROUND: There are conflicting recommendations between organizations regarding aminoglycoside use for the prophylaxis of type III open fractures. STUDY QUESTION: To compare cefazolin monotherapy versus cefazolin plus aminoglycoside therapy for prophylaxis of type III open fractures in trauma patients. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study conducted in 3 academic medical centers in the United States. Consecutive adult trauma patients with type III open fractures between January 2014 and September 2016 were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups: (1) cefazolin monotherapy versus (2) cefazolin plus aminoglycoside. MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of infection at the open fracture site. The secondary outcome measure was the occurrence of acute kidney injury. RESULTS: There were 134 patients included in the study cohort. Of these, 39 received cefazolin monotherapy and 95 received cefazolin plus aminoglycoside. Overall, the mean age was 39 ± 15 years, 105 (78%) were male, and the most common fracture location was tibia/fibula (n = 74, 56%). Infection at the open fracture site occurred in 6 of 39 patients (15%) in the cefazolin monotherapy group and 15 of 95 patients (16%) in the cefazolin plus aminoglycoside group (P = 1.000). Acute kidney injury occurred in 0 of 39 (0%) in the cefazolin monotherapy group and 1 of 95 (1%) in the cefazolin plus aminoglycoside group (P = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: Cefazolin monotherapy may be appropriate for antimicrobial prophylaxis of type III open fractures in trauma patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)