Objectives: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are predominantly B-cell lymphomas associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and rarely CD8-positive T-cell PCNSLs. Methods: Patient history, laboratory results, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), imaging, and brain biopsy specimens were reviewed and tested for T-cell receptor clonality. Results: A 64-year-old HIV-positive woman sought treatment for lethargy and left-sided weakness. Brain imaging showed regional increased T2 signal with restricted diffusion in cerebral hemispheres. CSF flow cytometry revealed CD4-positive T lymphocytes with loss of CD3, CD5, and CD7. EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma was immunohistochemically confirmed on brain biopsy specimens. Molecular analysis detected clonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. The patient received intrathecal methotrexate and whole-brain radiation. She did not respond to treatment and was eventually placed in hospice care. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of CD4-positive T-cell PCNSL in an HIV-positive patient and will help to raise clinical awareness of this previously unknown entity.
- CD4-positive T-cell lymphoma
- Primary central nervous system lymphoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine