Background: Type 1 (T1) inflammation (marked by IFN-γ expression) is now consistently identified in subsets of asthma cohorts, but how it contributes to disease remains unclear. Objective: We sought to understand the role of CCL5 in asthmatic T1 inflammation and how it interacts with both T1 and type 2 (T2) inflammation. Methods: CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 messenger RNA expression from sputum bulk RNA sequencing, as well as clinical and inflammatory data were obtained from the Severe Asthma Research Program III (SARP III). CCL5 and IFNG expression from bronchoalveolar lavage cell bulk RNA sequencing was obtained from the Immune Mechanisms in Severe Asthma (IMSA) cohort and expression related to previously identified immune cell profiles. The role of CCL5 in tissue-resident memory T-cell (TRM) reactivation was evaluated in a T1high murine severe asthma model. Results: Sputum CCL5 expression strongly correlated with T1 chemokines (P < .001 for CXCL9 and CXCL10), consistent with a role in T1 inflammation. CCL5high participants had greater fractional exhaled nitric oxide (P = .009), blood eosinophils (P < .001), and sputum eosinophils (P = .001) in addition to sputum neutrophils (P = .001). Increased CCL5 bronchoalveolar lavage expression was unique to a previously described T1high/T2variable/lymphocytic patient group in the IMSA cohort, with IFNG trending with worsening lung obstruction only in this group (P = .083). In a murine model, high expression of the CCL5 receptor CCR5 was observed in TRMs and was consistent with a T1 signature. A role for CCL5 in TRM activation was supported by the ability of the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc to blunt reactivation. Conclusion: CCL5 appears to contribute to TRM-related T1 neutrophilic inflammation in asthma while paradoxically also correlating with T2 inflammation and with sputum eosinophilia.
- tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy