Causes and implications of extreme atmospheric moisture demand during the record-breaking 2011 wildfire season in the southwestern United States

A. Park Williams, Richard Seager, Max Berkelhammer, Alison K. Macalady, Michael A. Crimmins, Thomas W. Swetnam, Anna T. Trugman, Nikolaus Buenning, Natalia Hryniw, Nate G. McDowell, David Noone, Claudia I. Mora, Thom Rahn

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66 Scopus citations


In 2011, exceptionally low atmospheric moisture content combined with moderately high temperatures to produce a record-high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the southwestern United States (SW). These conditions combined with record-low cold-season precipitation to cause widespread drought and extreme wildfires.Although interannual VPD variability is generally dominated by temperature, high VPD in 2011 was also driven by a lack of atmospheric moisture. The May-July 2011 dewpoint in the SW was 4.5 standard deviations below the long-term mean. Lack of atmospheric moisture was promoted by already very dry soils and amplified by a strong ocean-to-continent sea level pressure gradient and upper-level convergence that drove dry northerly winds and subsidence upwind of and over the SW. Subsidence drove divergence of rapid and dry surfacewinds over the SW, suppressing southerlymoisture imports and removingmoisture fromalready dry soils. Model projections developed for the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) suggest that by the 2050s warming trends will cause mean warm-season VPD to be comparable to the recordhigh VPD observed in 2011. CMIP5 projections also suggest increased interannual variability of VPD, independent of trends in background mean levels, as a result of increased variability of dewpoint, temperature,vapor pressure, and saturation vapor pressure. Increased variability in VPD translates to increased probability of 2011-type VPD anomalies, which would be superimposed on ever-greater background VPD levels.Although temperature will continue to be the primary driver of interannualVPDvariability, 2011 served as an important reminder that atmospheric moisture content can also drive impactful VPD anomalies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2671-2684
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2014


  • Atmospheric circulation
  • Drought
  • Vegetation-atmosphere interactions
  • Wildfires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science


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