Cardiovascular problems in women

Kahroba Jahan, Ainol Shareha Sarar, Nisa Arshad, Nguyen Phuc Nguyen, Amsa Arshad, Sajaj Agarwal, Thach Nguyen, Kwan Lee

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter presents the background, challenges, high-risk markers, strategic mapping, investigations, smart testing, invasive testing and management for cardiovascular problems in women. The term ischemic heart disease (IHD) encompasses a new concept of multifactorial pathophysiology for coronary atherosclerosis. It includes obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature and endothelium resulting in arterial expansive remodeling and non-obstructive plaque. Chest pain is the most common presenting symptom of IHD, although its characteristics and associated symptomatology differ significantly between men and women. In the comprehensive investigation of IHD, a sequence of testing modalities (electrocardiogram, biomarkers, non-invasive imaging, stress test) are suggested. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) appears to have similar success rates for men and women with greater short and mid-term survival for women, and similar stroke rates among women and men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationManagement of Complex Cardiovascular Problems
Number of pages27
ISBN (Electronic)9781118965061
ISBN (Print)9781118965030
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • Arterial expansive remodeling
  • Biomarkers
  • Chest pain
  • Coronary microvasculature
  • Electrocardiogram
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Non-invasive imaging
  • Non-obstructive plaque
  • Obstructive coronary artery disease
  • Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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