Cardiovascular membrane excitability and the influence of sex and sex steroids

Douglas K. Bowles, Meredith Hay

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


(1) Sex and sex steroids are potent modulators of membrane excitability. (2) Within the components of the action potential, sex steroids are known to affect subthreshold responses, action potential duration and the after-hyperpolarization (Figs. 2-4). (3) The ion channels underlying these events of the action potential are direct sites of action for both the acute and chronic effects of sex steroids. (4) Both estrogen and testosterone can stimulate Ca2+-activated K+ channels and normal estrogen function is important to normal K+ channel expression. (5) Estrogen and testosterone have been shown to modulate voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function and expression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPrinciples of Sex-based Differences in Physiology
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)044451497X, 9780444514974
StatePublished - 2004

Publication series

NameAdvances in Molecular and Cell Biology
ISSN (Print)1569-2558

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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