Cardiovascular Effects After Epidural Injection of Xylazine in Isoflurane‐Anesthetized Dogs


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16 Scopus citations


The cardiovascular effects following epidural injection of xylazine or isotonic saline during isoflurane anesthesia were assessed in six healthy dogs. Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane in O2 and maintained at 2.0% end‐tidal concentration. Ventilation was controlled to maintain PaCO2 at 35 to 45 mm Hg. The dorsal pedal artery was cannulated for measurement of arterial blood pressure (AP)(systolic AP, mean AP, diastolic AP) and for blood sample collection. Arterial pH and blood gas tensions (PaO2 and PaCO2) were determined. Cardiac output was measured by thermodilution. The electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate (HR), core body temperature, central venous pressure (CVP), mean pulmonary AP, and end‐tidal isoflurane concentration (ETISO) and CO2 tension (ETCO2) were monitored. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR), arterial HCO2 concentration, base balance, and cardiac index (CI) were calculated. After baseline measurements were taken, either xylazine (0.2 mg/kg) in 5 mL isotonic saline or 5 mL of isotonic saline was injected into the lumbosacral epidural space. Data were then recorded at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 minutes after epidural injection. Data were analyzed by two‐way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. When significant differences were encountered, mean values were compared using Bonferroni's test. The level of significance was set at P <.05. Mean values for diastolic AP decreased at 90 and 120 minutes compared with the mean value at 15 minutes after epidural injection of xylazine. No differences were detected at any time or between treatments for HR, systolic AP, mean AP, CVP, CI, SVR, mean pulmonary AP, temperature, ETCO2, ETISO, arterial pH, PaCO2, PaO2, plasma bicarbonate concentration, or base balance. Results of this study indicate that epidural injection of xylazine (0.2 mg/kg) is associated with minimal cardiovascular side effects during isoflurane anesthesia in mechanically ventilated dogs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)283-289
Number of pages7
JournalVeterinary Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Veterinary


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