@article{b96108ff40c44bafad1f1c2cf4aa32d2,

title = "Canonical ensembles and nonzero density quantum chromodynamics",

abstract = "We study QCD with nonzero chemical potential on 44 lattices by averaging over the canonical partition functions, or sectors with fixed quark number. We derive a condensed matrix of size 2×3×L3 whose eigenvalues can be used to find the canonical partition functions. We also experiment with a weight for configuration generation which respects the Z(3) symmetry which forces the canonical partition function to be zero for quark numbers that are not multiples of three.",

author = "A. Hasenfratz and D. Toussaint",

note = "Funding Information: propagators. At mq = 0.05 the pion mass is 0.541(2), the p-mass is 1.7(1) and the nucleon mass 2.3(1). At m 0 = 0.025 the pion mass is 0.385(2), and we did not obtain reliable results for the p or nucleon. The chemical potential at which a nonzero quark density starts developing, p. 0.3 for mq = 0.05 and p. 0.24 for mq = 0.025, is a little larger than one half the pion mass but far below one third of the nucleon mass. (Part of this difference comes from the fact that with four flavors of light quarks the multiplicity of the baryons is fairly large \[8\].) We thank Bob Sugar for helpful conversations. Part of this work was carried out while one of us (D.T.) was visiting UCSB and the Institute for Theoretical Physics. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy contract DE-FGO2-85ER-40213. Some of the computations were done on the Cray-YMP at the Florida State University Supercomputer Computations Research Institute. The mass spectrum calculation was done on the Ncube 6400 parallel computer at the San Diego Supercomputer Center.",

year = "1992",

month = mar,

day = "2",

doi = "10.1016/0550-3213(92)90247-9",

language = "English (US)",

volume = "371",

pages = "539--549",

journal = "Nuclear Physics B",

issn = "0550-3213",

publisher = "Elsevier",

number = "1-2",

}