Can Pyramids and Seed Mixtures Delay Resistance to Bt Crops?

Yves Carrière, Jeffrey A. Fabrick, Bruce E. Tabashnik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

151 Scopus citations


The primary strategy for delaying the evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) entails refuges of plants that do not produce Bt toxins and thus allow survival of susceptible pests. Recent advances include using refuges together with Bt crop 'pyramids' that make two or more Bt toxins effective against the same pest, and planting seed mixtures yielding random distributions of pyramided Bt and non-Bt corn plants within fields. We conclude that conditions often deviate from those favoring the success of pyramids and seed mixtures, particularly against pests with low inherent susceptibility to Bt toxins. For these problematic pests, promising approaches include using larger refuges and integrating Bt crops with other pest management tactics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)291-302
Number of pages12
JournalTrends in Biotechnology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


  • Cross-resistance
  • Genetically engineered
  • Redundant killing
  • Resistance management
  • Sustainability
  • Transgenic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering


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