Calcium and Proteases

J. G. Schnellmann, R. G. Schnellmann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Calcium ions (Ca2+) are critical second messengers within various eukaryotic cell-signaling pathways, functioning as regulators of diverse cellular processes. The importance of Ca2+ in muscle contraction was first observed at the end of the 19th century, and since the mid-1970s, research into the complexity and diversity of Ca2+ functions along with the development of experimental tools to investigate these functions has yielded impressive findings. Ca2+ clearly stimulates numerous cellular processes, such as muscle contraction, cellular proliferation, gene expression, hormone and neurotransmitter secretion, exocytosis, and chemotaxis, but Ca2+ is also toxic. Thus, free intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) must be tightly regulated to properly balance Ca2+-mediated cell function and Ca2+-mediated cell injury and death. Intracellular cytoplasmic Ca2+ (∼10−8–10−7molL−1) is maintained well below the extracellular concentration 10−3molL−1, creating a gradient across the cell membrane.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationComprehensive Toxicology, Third Edition
Subtitle of host publicationVolume 1-15
ISBN (Electronic)9780081006122
ISBN (Print)9780081006016
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Ca channel
  • Calmodulin
  • Calpain
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  • Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General Environmental Science


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